Sunday, January 15, 2012

सभी ब्लॉगर मित्रों को संक्रांति की शुभकामनाएँ!!!

तन में मस्ती 
मन में उमंग 
देकर सबको अपनापन 
गुड में जैसे मीठापन .
होकर साथ हम उड़ायें पतंग 
और भरलें आकाश में अपना रंग.
हैप्पी मकर संक्रांति!!!!!  

Thursday, August 11, 2011

   **** పేరిశెట్టి శ్రీనివాసరావు****
****హిందీ :రాంస్వరూప్‌ దీక్షిత్‌****
నువ్వెళ్ళిపోయిన తర్వాతే
తెలుసుకున్నాను నేను
ఎందుకంటే నువ్వున్నప్పుడే
ఇల్లు 'ఇల్లు'లా ఉండేది
నువ్వెళ్ళిపోయిన తర్వాత
అప్పటి వరకు ఇల్లుగా ఉన్న ఇల్లు
నివాసంలా మారిపోయింది!

ఇంట్లోని వస్తువులన్నీ
మాట్లాడుతుండేవి, పలుకరిస్తుండేవి
అవిప్పుడు నిర్జీవమయిపోయాయి
ప్రతి వస్తువులోను నీవే నిండి ఉన్నావు

వేల మైళ్ళ దూరం నుండి
నన్ను రారమ్మని పిలుస్తుండేది ఇల్లు
కొన్ని రోజుల వరకు
వెళ్ళనిచ్చేది కాదు బయటికి నన్ను

అదే ఇల్లు
లోపల ఉంటున్నా
ఉండనివ్వడం లేదు
నేను అందులోని
ఎన్నో వస్తువుల్లో
ఒక దానిలాగ నివసిస్తున్నాను...

ఇప్పుడే తెలిసింది నాకు
గృహస్థులు అయ్యుండి
గృహం లేని వారవుతారు
గృహం లేనివారు
నిండైన గూడు కట్టుకుంటున్నారు
చెట్లకింద, వంతెనల కింద
ఫుట్‌పాత్‌ల పైన
ఆకాశం క్రింద కూడా!

Saturday, May 28, 2011

విశ్వ విఖ్యాత నటసార్వభౌమ నందమూరి తారక రామారావు గారికి జన్మదిన శుభాకాంక్షలు

విశ్వ విఖ్యాత నటసార్వభౌమ నందమూరి తారక రామారావు  గారికి జన్మదిన శుభాకాంక్షలు

Nandamuri Tharaka Rama Rao was born in a farmer’s family at Nimmakuru, Krishna district of Andhra Pradesh on 28th of May 1923 at 4.32pm. His mother wished to name his son as Krishna, but his uncle named him as Taraka Ramudu, which later confined as Taraka Rama Rao. His parents Nandamuri Lakshmiah Chowdhury and Venkata Ramamma least imagined that this child was going to be uprise as an remarkable persona in his future and going to come across a golden thrown for him in the Andhra Pradesh history.

In spite of being a farmers family NTR’s parents respected education. NTR’s basic education was finished at his native place Nimmakuru. His father carried him on his shoulders to a school that is far away from their house. When his uncle Ramaiah adopted NTR, he was taken to Vijayawada concerning his further education. NTR had joined in sixth class at Gandhi Municipal School at Vijayawada. When his parents met with a bad patch frantically, NTR used to help them by tying the milk cans on both sides of his cycle and distributing them to the hotels and dwellers of farer places from their house. It was his first taste of the dignity of labour. He had undertaken so many things to earn the daily bread for their family. He ran a small provision store and worked as a clerk. In spite of all these things he remained a good student in his school and later in college. While he was studying Intermediate at S.R.R. College at Visakha Patnam, Viswanatha Satyanarayana who was the head of the Telugu dept there asked NTR to play a female role where NTR reluctantly agreed to play the role but having his moustache! That incidence fetched him the nickname meesaala naagamma.

Marriage It was while NTR was doing his Intermediate, that he got married to his maternal uncle’s daughter Basavatharakam in May 1942. Because of the distraction caused by marriage, he failed in Intermediate twice. However, he didn’t give it up and proved his will power by succeeding in the examination later, and had joined in B.A. at Andhra Christian College, Guntur. There was always an instinct in him towards acting. It was that instinct in him which drove him towards the stage. The amateur National Arts Theatre group (NAT) at Andhra Christian College, Guntur in 1946, and started performing and directing many stage plays like ‘Chesina Paapam’ along with Kongara Jaggiah, Mukkamala and K.V.S. Sarma. They raised money for the welfare of poor people, and for draught and famine relief funds during early 50’s. In addition NTR was a good illustrator. He had even won a prize in painting competition held at state level. When Subhash Chandra Bose visited Vijayawada, NTR gifted a portrayal of Bose to him.
Taraka Rama Rao completed his graduation in the year 1947. He later passed in the Madras Service Commission Exam – out of 1,100 members only seven were selected and Rama Rao was one among them. Thus he settled down in a sub registrar’s job at Mangalagiri in 1947. Nevertheless, it became a brief period as he worked only for three weeks and refrained from the job since he got a prospect in films.

The great career starts:
B.A. Subba Rao, the famous film producer happened to see NTR’s photograph at L.V. Prasad. He called up NTR to Madras and fixed him up as the hero for his film ‘Palleturi Pilla’, without any make up test or screen test at all. Even though L.V. Prasad was a bit hesitant towards Subba Rao’s idea, he never took heed and made an agreement with Rama Rao after giving him a remuneration of Rs.1,116/-. But it was the film ‘Mana Desam’, for which Rama Rao faced the camera for the first time, in the year 1949. Rama Rao was offered a small role as a sub inspector in that film. His first lead role was in the film ‘Palleturi Pilla’, in 1950 followed by L. V. Prasad’s ‘Shavukar’ in the same year.
After his two films, NTR moved his abide to Madras. He took a small room for rent near the Thousand Lights area in Madras. When the money, which was given to him for ‘Palleturi Pilla’ was spent over, Rama Rao struggled a lot. He couldn’t afford money even for the bus fares. He factually starved for three days as he had left with no money and did not make even his roommates (famous producer Yoganand one among them) know.
Golden Era:
Stardom came to him with K.V. Reddy’s film ‘Paathala Bhairavi’ (1951), which was followed by B.N. Reddy’s ‘Malleeswari’ (1951), L.V. Prasad’s ‘Pelli Chesi Choodu’ (1952) and K. Kameswara Rao’s ‘Chandra Haaram’. All of these movies were of the famous firm Vijaya. For all each of the film Rama Rao was offered Rs 500/- per month as salary and Rs 5,000/- as the remuneration. His film ‘Paathala Bhairavi’ turned to be a sensational hit, which broke all the records by running 100 days in 34 centres and 25 weeks in 13 centres and 50 days in one center. N.T.R. with his sharp nose and radiating smile, with his curl hair and tall figure captured almost all the hearts of Andhra Pradesh.
In 1958, A.V.M. Chettiyar determined to make his film ‘Bhoo Kailas’ under K. Shanker’s direction. He preferred the fine-looking young man N.T. Rama Rao for the role of Ravana Brahma and Akkineni Nageswara Rao as Narada Maharshi and S.V. Ranga Rao for the Maya Brahma role. Rama Rao was exceedingly happy to get his favored role of Ravana Brahma since Rama Rao thought Ravana was the best legendary character that he had ever seen. After the release of the film in 1959, NTR studied more about Ravana’s character, as he wanted to reenact the role in such a way that no body could ever do the role like him. His first mythological film P. Pullaiah’s ‘Sri Venkateswara Mahatyam’ (1960) was a tremendous hit. The devotees of Lord Venkateswara lined up in front of his house for NTR’s darshan, after the release of the film. He played five roles in the film ‘Sri Madvirata Parvam’. Such was the charisma, which NTR was having among his fans. In his 44 years of film career, Rama Rao had acted in about 297 films, out of which 280 are Telugu, 15 Tamil and 4 Hindi films. 44 of his films were mythological, 13 were historical, 55 fictional and 185 films were social. 140 of his films celebrated hundred days and 33 films celebrated silver Jubilees while six of his films ran more than 50 weeks. In 1950s NTR was the most cherished hero who was acting in 10 films per year. His film ‘Lava Kusa’ an all time hit, which was released in 1963, made a record by running 75 weeks in a center and 100 days in 63 centres. For his film ‘Maya Bazar’ for Lord Krishna’s role, which was released in 1956, Rama Rao took Rs.7, 500/-, which was said to be the highest remuneration in those days. For about 22 years since he entered into films Rama Rao’s remuneration was around 4 or 5 digits. From 1972 it had grown to one lakh for each film and after some time, it went up around 7 lakhs onwards.

NTR’s directed his first film ‘Sitha Rama Kalyanam’ in 1961 under his own banner N.A. T. films which was managed by his brother Trivikrama Rao. In that film Rama Rao played das Ravana Brahma in such way no other actor could imagine doing that. Even Nageswara Rao told that he became NTR’s fan after seeing that film. Later He directed himself in a triple role in ‘Daana Veera Soora Karna’ in 1977 he also directed the film ‘Sri Rama Pattabhishekam’ in 1978. His social films ‘Adavi Ramudu’ and ‘Yamagola’ were huge box- office hits. NTR harked back to produce, act and direct the film ‘Brahmarshi Vishwamitra’ in 1990 to campaign for the 1991 general elections.
NTR was a strict disciplinarian. He used to practice hard on the shores of marina Beach at Madras, to retain his bass and echoic voice for excellent dialogue delivery and base modulations. When he was in his forties and was working for the film ‘Narthana Saala’, he learnt Bharath Natyam at Vempati China Satyam to make the role justified. Such was NTR’s dedication towards his profession. He never stumbled or stammered in front of the camera as he used to take all the dialogues by heart when he was doing a particular film. He woke up early always and never missed doing physical exercises.

He made his way into politics in 1982 by setting up his own regional party, ‘Telugu Desam Party’ (TDP) aspiring to shield the pride of the Telugu People all over the world. He had beaten Congress-I in the first elections and became the non Congress Chief Minister for the first time in India. No other politician entered into politics within nine months of their entry into politics. He had brought in the 'slab system' in film field in 1984. The system facilitated the producers as well as the distributors largely. He was the chief minister of the state till 1989 when his party was discomfited. He was elected to be the Chairman of ‘National Front Party’.
As the Time grabs everybody to its cold lap, Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao, a great legend died in 1996 at the age of 73 leaving no other person to replace his place. He is not among us physically he remains unaltered in the hearts of millions of people of Andhra Pradesh.

Sr.N.T.R Biography/Life history

Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao(28 May 1923–18 January 1996), more commonly known as N.T. Rama Rao, NTR by his fans, or Anna garu, was an Indian film actor, director, producer, and politician. He founded the Telugu Desam Party and served three times as Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh. His repertoire of films included mythological, social, and folk themes. He was awarded the Padma Shri by the Government of India in the 1960s, recognizing his contribution to Telugu cinema. After his film career, Rao became a political activist and party leader.
Beginning Days
Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao is one of the famous actors in the Telugu industry. NTR started his film career in the movie ‘Mana Desam’, in this movie he Played Police Inspector role. He was encouraged and given opportunities by Raghupathi Surya Prakash Naidu son of Raghupathi Venkaiah Though widely recognized for playing mythological characters, Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao is considered as one of the greatest actors in Telugu film industry. NTR played Lord Krishna role in ‘Maya Bazaar’ produced by B. Nagi Reddy, Vijaya Productions. This role was turning point of his movie life. He also played Ravana and avatars of Vishnu, especially Rama and Krishna; mesmerized an entire generation who saw the face of Dr. Rama Rao when these gods were mentioned.
Dr. Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao had a major contribution to Telugu film making, between 1950 and 1965. Analysts believe that the Tamil and Telugu film industry produced some of the best mythological movies from India, while the Tamil and Malayalam movie industry produced socially-oriented films.
Middle Days:
In the middle of his days he played a important role in the Andhra Pradesh politics and film industry. N.T.Rama Rao highlighted Andhra Pradesh distinct cultural identity, distinguishing it from Madras State with which it was often associated. Without any experience in politics, elections or even administration at the smallest level, NTR set about to campaigning. He launched a whirl-wind tour of the state. His theme of the campaign was that “If the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh couldn’t get audience with Delhi, How could a commoner get to make his voice heard?”. The impact of his powerful oratory and persona was such that, he swept the polls. It became a watershed event in Indian Politics; a 9 month old party had beaten a century old party and grabbed power.
With a victory in the immediate election, NTR formed government and ruled the state of Andhra Pradesh for a full term. He went into the elections with the slogan Telugu vari Atma ankaraoGauravam which meant “Telugu people’s self-respect.”
Later Days:
He stormed back to power in 1994 when he promised he would offer rice at Rs. 2/kg and to make Andhra Pradesh “Alcohol-Free”. True to his word he kept his promises. However, this ended up burning holes in the Government’s revenue. It is noteworthy that regulation (viz., ban on alcohol) has rarely been a success in Democracies.
In 1995, his son-in-law Nara Chandrababu Naidu broke away from NTR and convinced most of the TDP MLA’s to elect him as their leader thus, making him the chief minister to replace Dr.Rao. Both the INR 2/kg Rice and the Alcohol Prohibition policies were gradually softened and withdrawn during the rule of his successor Nara Chandrababu Naidu. There have been reports that the populist policies and measures of Dr. Rao contributed to enormous strain on the state exchequer.
He died on 18 January 1996, due to Heart Attack.

Sunday, March 27, 2011

Saturday, March 26, 2011

मनोवैज्ञानिक पाठ का अनुवाद

                            मनोवैज्ञानिक पाठ का अनुवाद

                                                            डा.नीरजा गुर्रम्कोंडा !

साहित्येतर पाठ का अनुवाद करते समय अनुवादक को जिन समस्याओं का सामना करना पड़ता है वे साहित्यिक पाठ के अनुवाद की समस्याओं से कई अर्थों में भिन्न होती हैं. हम जनते हैं कि साहित्यिक पाठ में अनेक प्रकार की समाज-सांस्कृतिक अर्थ छवियाँ और शैलीगत विशेषताएँ निहित होती हैं जिनसे जूझे बिना उसका अनुवाद नहीं हो सकता. साहित्येतर पाठ के अनुवादक के समक्ष ये चुनौतियाँ तो नहीं होती परंतु इससे इनकार नहीं किया जा सकता कि उसे सबसे पहले विषय के ज्ञान की चुनौती का सामना करना पड़ता है. इसके अतिरिक्‍त साहित्येतर पाठ का स्वरूप तकनीकी भाषा से निर्मित होता है, अतः स्रोत भाषा की प्रयुक्‍ति के समकक्ष लक्ष्य भाषा में प्रयुक्‍ति की तलाश साहित्येतर पाठ के अनुवाद की मुख्य चिंता होती है. यदि मनोवैज्ञानिक पाठ के संदर्भ में बात करें तो कहना होगा कि (1) अनुवादक को मनोविज्ञान ‘विषय ’ की सामन्य जानकारी होनी चाहिए तथा (2) मनोविज्ञान की भाषा (प्रयुक्‍ति) पर आधिकार तो अनिवार्य है ही.

वस्तुतः अनुवाद दो भाषाओं के मध्य घटित होनेवाला संप्रेषण व्यापार है. आज अनेक क्षेत्रों में यह व्यापार अनिवार्य हो गया है. यह भी कहा जा सकता है कि जहाँ भाषा है वहाँ अनुवाद भी स्वतः निहित है. अनुवाद ‘अनुप्रयुक्‍त भाषाविज्ञान ’ (Applied Linguistics) का एक अंग है. अतः मनोभाषाविज्ञान (Psycholinguistics) के क्षेत्र में भी अनुवाद का महत्वपूर्ण योगदान है. सामान्यतः अनुवाद में स्रोत भाषा की संपूर्ण सामग्री का लक्ष्य भाषा के समतुल्य शब्दों में प्रतिस्थापित नहीं होता. ‘समतुल्य शब्दों को खोज निकालना ’ ही अनुवाद कार्य की प्रमुख समस्या है.

मनोविज्ञान एक विशिष्‍ट प्रयुक्‍ति क्षेत्र है. भाषाविज्ञान और मनोविज्ञान का बहुत गहरा संबंध है. विचारों का सीधा संबंध मस्तिष्‍क तथा मनोविज्ञान से है. मानसिक गुत्थियों एवं ग्रंथियों का पता लगाने व उन्हें सुलझाने तथा मानसिक रोगियों के उपचार में उनके द्वारा कही गई ऊल-जलूल बातों का विश्‍लेषण करने आदि में भाषाविज्ञान की क्षेत्र में प्रयुक्‍त पारिभाषिक शब्दावली और अभिव्यक्‍तियों का अनुवाद करते समय अनुवादक के सामने समस्या उत्पन्न हो सकती है.

मनोवैज्ञानिक क्षेत्र में भाषा का विशिष्‍ट प्रयोग

मनोवैज्ञानिक क्षेत्र की विशिष्‍टता यह है कि उसमें जो प्रचलित तकनीकी शब्द और अभिव्यक्‍तियाँ हैं उन्हीं का प्रयोग किया जाता है. अतः अनुवादक के लिए यह अनिवार्य है कि वह इस विशिष्‍ट भाषा-प्रयोग की जानकारी रखता हो, अन्यथा उसके लिए इसे समझना दुष्‍कर हो जाएगा.

नवनिर्मित तथा अनूदित शब्द

अंग्रेज़ी पारिभाषिक शब्दों का अनुवाद भारतीय भाषा या हिंदी में करना वांछनीय है क्योंकी अंग्रेज़ी में प्रयुक्‍त शब्दों का अर्थ सामान्य भारतीय कम जानते हैं. अर्थात्‌ उनमें पारदर्शिता का अभाव रहता है. किंतु हिंदी में गढ़े जानेवाले शब्दों का एक सुनिश्‍चित आश्रय लेना उपयुक्‍त है, चूँकि संस्कृत में प्रजनन शक्‍ति (Generative Power) है. संस्कृत धातुओं में उचित उपसर्ग और प्रत्यय जोड़कर हजारों पारिभाषिक शब्दों का निर्माण किया जा सकता है.

Mind - मन / मनस
Conscious - चेतन
Subconscious - अवचेतन / अर्धचेतन
Unconscious - अचेतन
Psychology - मनोविज्ञान
Psychoanalysis - मनोविश्‍लेषण
Psychiatry - मनोचिकित्सा
Psychiatrist - मनोचिकित्सक
Abnormal Psychology - असामान्य मनोविज्ञान
Individual Psychology - वैयक्‍तिक मनोविज्ञान
Sex - यौन
Libido - कामवृत्ति
Ego - अहम्‌
Super Ego - पराहम्‌
Complex - कुंठा / ग्रंथि / मनोग्रंथि
Inferiority Complex - हीनताग्रंथि
Superiority Complex - उच्चताग्रंथि

ग्रहीत शब्द

Eros - एरोज
Thenetos - थेनेटोस
Oedipus - इडीपस
Electra - इलेक्‍ट्रा
Sex - सेक्‍स
Libido - लिबिडो
Histeria - हिस्टीरिया
Psychoneurotic - सैकोन्यूरोटिक
Death Instinct - डेथ इंसटिंक्‍ट

अनुकूलित शब्द

Id - इद / इदम्‌

संकर शब्द

Super Ego - सुपराहम्‌

अर्थ आधारित अनुवाद

अर्थ या भाव को ध्यान में रखकर निर्मित शब्द -

Oedipus - मातृरति
Electra - पितृरति
Eros - जीवनवृत्ति
Thenetos - मृत्युवृत्ति
Libido - कामवृत्ति
Histeria - मनोरोग
Histeric Patient - मनोरोगी

इस प्रकार स्पष्‍ट है कि तकनीकी क्षेत्र होने के कारण मनोवैज्ञानिक पाठ का अनुवाद करने के लिए पारिभाषिक शब्दावली और अभिव्यक्‍तियों के ज्ञान की विशेष अपेक्षा होती है. यह भी ध्यान रखने की बात है कि यथासंभव इन पाठों के अनुवाद का पाठधर्मी होना श्रेयस्कर है